The News Rundown
- It wasn’t even close.
- At around 8:35pm on election nights the networks called the end of a 28 day dirty campaign for the United Conservatives.
- This marks the closing of one of Western Context’s biggest chapters. All the way back on episode 1 we announced that Brian Jean was ready to step down and would be open to merger talks with a PC party under Jason Kenney.
- On episode 8 Jason Kenney won the PC leadership in March 2017, on episode 26 both parties chose unity by over 95% of membership voting, and on episode 41 Jason Kenney won the UCP leadership race.
- The UCP would go on to win 54.8% of the popular vote with 1,030,560 votes cast. This was enough for 63 seats in the 87 seat legislature.
- The NDP was shrunk down to a caucus from mostly Edmonton of 24 seats gaining 32.7% of the vote.
- Early indicators from Elections Alberta say that this was the highest election turnout since 1935 with 71.1% of voters coming out to vote.
- Interestingly enough 1935 was the last time Albertans removed a socialist government from power when the turnout was 81.8% and the United Farmers went from 36 seats to 0.
- Calgary and the rest of Alberta was a sweep for the UCP with the exception of Joe Ceci in Calgary-Buffalo, Kathleen Ganley in Calgary-Mountain View, Irfan Sabir in Calgary-McCall and Shannon Phillips in Lethbridge-West.
- It is still possible that UCP candidate Karri Flatla could request a recount in Lethbridge-West as she is only behind by 225 votes.
- The UCP won one seat in Edmonton which was Edmonton-South West which you will recall we profiled last week with NDP candidate John Archer’s disgusting tweet. On Friday John Archer conceded to UCP candidate Kaycee Madu.
- The UCP also won in Sherwood Park, Leduc-Beaumont, and Spruce Grove-Stony Plain.
- In his victory speech on Tuesday, Jason Kenney announced triumphantly that Alberta is open for business, Alberta will fight for a fair deal on pipelines and equalization, in doing so he spoke in French to Quebec directly, and that the Alberta government will fight back against foreign interests who seek to prevent our oil from getting to market.
- On this last note, in the final 48 hours of the campaign a column was circulated in papers written by Vivian Krouse.
- She was helping the former Notley government “break the pipeline gridlock” in her words.
- She received an email on April 3rd sent by Leadnow that was original sent out by Duncan Kinney, the director of Progress Alberta.
- The email stated: “We’re going into our fourth week of digital door knocking and text banking and it has been incredible. We can talk to a lot of voters in very little time and we’ve identified thousands of supporters that we will be getting out to the polls.”
- This meant that Leadnow, the group that campaigned against the Harper government in 2015 was involved in the 2019 Alberta election but it does raise the question of why Rachel Notley never stood up to the Rockefeller Brothers Fund or the Tides Foundation all of which have funnelled money to Leadnow and Progress Alberta to the tune of $225,000 USD combined.
- The new UCP government will be going after these groups and these among others including the David Suzuki foundation were called out by Jason Kenney in his victory speech.
- Talk on CBC on election night pointed to problems with repudiation from Edmonton and later this turned to the fact that Notley was the 7th female premier removed from office in just over 6 years.
- They put the premise as being: “The gradual disappearance of women from the ranks of Canada’s premiers raises questions about society’s willingness to embrace true equality”
- Toronto Star columnist Gillian Steward said that, “Alberta is now in reverse gear and roaring backwards.”
- The article goes on and shows that she and perhaps The Star do not understand Alberta, “Back to the boom days of $100 a barrel oil. Back to a time when there were more jobs than people to fill them. Back to the day when a high-school dropout could earn $100,000 a year driving a truck for an oilsands giant. Back to a time when no one had even thought of climate change. Back to the days when environmentalists were simply harmless weirdos. It’s all a delusion, of course.”
- It might be a delusion for the CBC or Gillian Steward and The Star because it doesn’t fit their world view. There are many who are still suffering around the world from having their world view shaken in 2016 when Donald Trump was elected President.
- Social bubbles are bad and create delusion.
- On the social side of this campaign it’s clear that Edmonton went one way due to the sheer number of unionized employees, doctors, education professionals, and public servants.
- In time we’ll know why voters chose what they did but the issues of the Twitter universe that the mainstream media highlighted and created stories around all too often through the campaign gained zero traction.
- Some thought that the UCP would suffer the fate of the Wildrose in 2012 due to the “bozo-eruptions” but that was not an issue.
- Jeremy Wong who took over from Caylan Ford in Calgary-Mountain View got 36.7% of the vote despite social media and later the media tarring him for one of his sermons that he made.
- Calgary-South East candidate Matt Jones won with 60.9% of the vote, he took over from Eva Kiryakos after she resigned due to comments made on Europe’s refugee crisis and transgender bathrooms.
- Jason Nixon was reelected with over 81% of the vote despite the NDP and social media trying to say he assaulted someone previously even though charges were never issued.
- Roger Reid for Livingstone-Macleod was elected with over 70% of the vote despite the social media built up issue over a book review of a book entitled “The Homosexual Agenda” in a religions newsletter from 2003.
- And finally Mark Smith won Drayton Valley-Devon with over 70% of the vote despite social media, the media, and the NDP focusing on a sermon he gave when he was focusing on media commentary of homosexual love.
- The social media campaign did not work.
- A word on polls: The UCP ended up beating the NDP province wide by 22.1%. The largest polled lead for the UCP was 23% by Forum on April 5 and Angus Reid at 25% just after the campaign started.
- Forum and Leger were the closest in the final batch of polls.
- The pollsters under estimated the UCP in rural Alberta and most pollsters missed Calgary by 10% with Mainstreet doing the worst giving the UCP only a 2% lead in the city. The final Calgary results was around 50% UCP 36% NDP. Pollsters hit Edmonton on the nose.
- This victory hopefully marks a return to fiscal prudence in Alberta, the first time since Ralph Klein was in office. The wishy washy ways of Ed Stelmach drove away conservatives to the Wildrose, the corrupt antics of Allison Redford and Thomas Lukaszuk drove away the progressives from the progressive conservatives, and the arrogance of Jim Prentice and Danielle Smith put the final nail in the PC party paving the way for the NDP.
- What Jason Kenney set out to do in winning a party leadership race, negotiating a merger, winning another party leadership race, winning a by-election, then waging a general election is a an impressive feat in itself and one that will be studied in the coming years.
- This closes off a chapter for us here at Western Context and one in Alberta that began with Ed Stelmach and ended with the NDP forming Alberta’s first one term government.
- In a final note Derek Fildebrandt came in 3rd behind the NDP in his riding and both the Alberta Party and Alberta Liberals were wiped out of the legislature.
- The new United Conservative government will be sworn in on April 30th.
- With good reason, the election of Alberta's United Conservative Party led by Jason Kenney to a strong stable majority government sent waves across the news cycle over the past week. It's all anyone was talking about for quite some time, media or otherwise. Here in BC, talk quickly turned from the election itself to what it might mean for BC, instead looking at Kenney's threat to "turn off the taps" if BC doesn't stop fighting the Trans Mountain Pipeline expansion, and whether or not Kenney could actually do that, and what it would mean for gas prices.
- At a campaign rally in Edmonton last Friday before the election on Tuesday, Kenney renewed his promise to “turn off the taps” of gasoline “within an hour” of being sworn in as Alberta premier in response to previous promises made by Vancouver Mayor Kennedy Stewart to achieve a carbon-free Vancouver by 2040.
- “The NDP mayor of Vancouver said he wants a carbon-free Vancouver by 2040,” Kenney told the crowd, referring to Stewart’s previous role as NDP MP for Burnaby South. “Well, if the B.C. New Democrats continue to block our energy, we’ll happily give them a carbon-free Vancouver by 2020.”
- British Columbia’s current leadership has consistently opposed the Trans Mountain pipeline. The federal government decided to buy the pipeline last year in an attempt to push the project through. The move has faced backlash in B.C.
- Just two weeks ago on Episode 113 I talked about how John Horgan is "considering relief" for squeezed motorists suffering from record high gas prices, and how he said "perhaps the industry should invest more in refineries and the federal government should invest more in supply."
- Major news outlets such as Global, CTV, CBC, and others have turned to expert opinion on the matter, to see if Kenney could actually "turn off the taps". Economist Robyn Allan had this to say: “I think a lot of what Mr. Kenney’s saying is grandstanding. There’s a significant amount of revenue involved for Alberta’s oil producers when you’re sending 300,000 barrels a day of crude product and refined product.”
- BC, she explained, can likely seek out other parties to fulfil its oil needs. However, it’s much more difficult for Alberta to find new markets for its exports. BC needs Alberta less than Alberta needs B.C., which means that Kenney’s plan may ultimately backfire, Allan concludes. She says “It doesn’t make any business or market sense. And, in that respect, I doubt very much that it will ever happen.”
- Joel Bakan, a law professor at the University of British Columbia, said there is no constitutional basis for cutting off gas between provinces. He said that he "can say with absolute confidence that Alberta will lose this case."
- Kathryn Harrison, a professor of political science at UBC and an expert on climate policy, agrees Alberta will not be able to fix its economic problems with a shut-off-the-taps law.
- "Alberta cannot get the Trans Mountain pipeline built. It's not within their authority," Harrison told Stephen Quinn, the host of CBC's The Early Edition.
- "It's a federal decision and it's before the courts what authority B.C. might have to complicate the transport of some heavy oil across the province."
- Dan McTeague, senior petroleum analyst for gasbuddy.com, takes a different viewpoint, and is concerned that additional pressure on the oil and gas industry could further inflame prices, which are reaching historic highs.
- “Vancouver will be at $1.71 per litre. [It's an a]ll-time high, historic high, not just for Vancouver, or for B.C., not just for Canada. It’s the highest price ever paid by any major city in North America, period.”
- “So, it wouldn’t take much to create further chaos in terms of markets and in terms of prices. That’s because the Trans Mountain pipeline is literally the aortic artery of energy for Vancouver and the Lower Mainland,” McTeague said.
- “If Vancouver doesn’t think the Trans Mountain pipeline is important to its economic future, then it only has to recognize that its community is in a region which is already hard hit with high prices. It’s making a bad situation that much worse.”
- But to truly understand the dire straits that BC is actually in regarding oil supply, we need to look at the facts, with no spin from either the BC Premier or Alberta Premier designate (and certainly not the Prime Minister who can't say good morning without lying twice).
- Let’s start with what we know about the BC refined fuel market. Let’s start with this from an article in Business in Vancouver:
- "Provincially, B.C. lacks refining capacity. B.C.’s two refineries produce only 67,000 barrels per day (bpd) of gasoline and diesel, whereas B.C. consumed 192,000 bpd in 2015, according to the CFA [Canadian Fuels Association]. The Parkland Fuel Corp. refinery in Burnaby produces 55,000 bpd and supplies about 25% to 30% of Vancouver International Airport’s jet fuel supply. Alberta’s refineries supply about 100,000 bpd to B.C., and about 30,000 bpd is imported from Washington state refineries, according to the CFA."
- To our south, the United States has broken their petroleum market up into five Petroleum Administration of Defense Districts (PADDs). The West Coast of the US, including California, Oregon and Washington, make up PADD 5. Geography defines PADD 5. It is mostly bordered on the east by mountains. The only (non-rail) major east-west connection on the west coast is the Trans Mountain pipeline. As the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) puts it:
- "Because PADD 5 is isolated, in-region refineries are the primary source of transportation fuels for PADD 5. In 2013, PADD 5 refinery production was sufficient to cover about 91% of in-region motor gasoline demand, 96% of jet demand, and 113% of distillate demand. Heavy reliance on in-region production further complicates the supply chain when disruptions occur. When disruptions occur, all of these factors noted above combine to limit short-term supply options, lengthen the duration of supply disruptions, and cause prices to increase and remain higher for a longer period than would be typical in markets outside PADD 5."
- In a nutshell, BC is short 30,000 bpd in refined fuel supply domestically and relies on Washington State refineries which sell into a PADD 5 market that is also significantly short on supply.
- Even more problematically, most of the big refineries are owned by oil companies that have long-term contracts for most of their production. We can only buy our 30,000 bpd out of the leftovers and we are competing with Oregon and California (that are also under-supplied) for whatever the Washington refineries have to sell. What is worse is that at this time of year the refineries have to temporarily lower capacity to allow the transition from winter gasoline to summer gasoline. The reason for this is that gasoline is affected by temperature and the winter blends have more volatile components needed to help cars run in the cold.
- As for the suggestion that the Parkland refinery can somehow fill in the gap. The truth is that, as a very small refinery, Parkland has needed to specialize to survive in the international market. Parkland has specialized by tuning their refinery to make jet fuel and the more expensive high-octane, premium fuels. It actually exports some of this premium gas in the US market. To make regular gasoline, in any reasonable quantities, would require the refinery to shut down and would take time and money.
- The only other significant facility in the Lower Mainland is the Suncor Burrard Products terminal. As I will point out below, the Trans Mountain is a batched pipeline. It carries refined fuels, light crude and heavy crude. One issue with batching is the refined fuels can pick up impurities left over from the heavy oil on the way. Before gasoline can be sold on the market it has to go to the Suncor facility for clean-up.
- To conclude, the take-away from this section is that BC has an ongoing shortage of about 30,000 bpd in refined fuel supply, with no large marine import facilities. We are buyers in a seller’s market (PADD 5) and have no ability to change that equation. Should we choose not to buy the fuel from the Washington refineries, they have lots of other options. So we are price takers not price makers.
- On episode 113 I mentioned that the Lower Mainland pays roughly 52c in taxes for every litre of gas, and this is the highest amount of taxes paid on gas in Canada, also contributing to record high prices.
- One thing we seldom hear discussed represents another big challenge with importing gasoline to BC: our fuel regulations. The Greenhouse Gas Reduction Act and the Renewable & Low Carbon Fuel Requirements Regulation define what our gasoline looks like. What does this mean for consumers? Well it means we can’t simply buy gas from Asia or California and sell it off the boat to retailers. Instead gasoline from other suppliers would need to be imported and mixed with enough ethanol to meet the BC regulations before it can be sold. This is another way we have, through our government's desire to fight climate change, made it harder (and more expensive) to get gas in BC.
- But let's get back to the Trans Mountain Pipeline. We are all told that the Trans Mountain has a nominal capacity of 300,000 bpd. But that is not the entire story, because it's a batched pipeline. It carries refined fuels, light crude and heavy crude and the relative amount of each defines the actual capacity of the pipeline.
- This means that if we can get all of the heavy fuel out of the pipeline (say moving by rail via CanaPux) then that would be almost like getting a brand new pipeline. Running only light crude and refined fuels, the pipeline could supply the Puget Sound with 260,000 bpd while still leaving lots of room for Parkland and the West Coast market. The flip side of this equation is that if Alberta were to require that the pipeline carry 30% – 40% heavy it would push the capacity of the pipeline down to 269,000 bpd which could squeeze the amount of refined fuel running down the pipe.
- One additional fact that is not well known is that in 2010 the NEB provided the Westridge marine facility with two allocations. A firm allocation of 54,000 bpd and and uncommitted allocation of 24,000 bpd. As you can see from the graph above, over the last few years the marine terminal has been getting the short end of the stick but that doesn’t have to be the case. Essentially, the NEB said that the suppliers can demand up to 79,000 bpd be sent to the marine terminal. 79,000 bpd represents almost 30% of the pipeline capacity if that 79,000 bpd were heavy crude.
- Given the NEB’s decision, it is possible that Alberta could require that the entire marine allocation be put in the pipe as heavy fuel (say by nominating a whole lot of the in-kind bitumen they get in lieu of royalties). If that were the case it would, as discussed above, put the squeeze on the pipeline and reduce the amount of refined fuel running to BC. This would represent an entirely legal way that an Alberta government could constrain BC fuel supplies and there would be nothing a court could do about it. Simply enforcing existing allocations using heavy could shrink the amount of anything else running down the line.
- To conclude we British Columbians are buyers in a sellers market. We have no ability to dictate to the market and if the provincial government decided to regulate gasoline it would have to start high because Canadian governments can’t force American refiners to sell them gasoline.
- The Lower Mainland also lacks marine facilities to significantly increase the amount of fuel that comes here by ship and BC gasoline regulations would require that any imported gasoline be adapted to meet our local requirements. Both would raise the price of gasoline even more.
- If Alberta wants to squeeze BC it can shut down the pipe. But if it did the courts would deal with that in hours/days. But the truth of the matter is that Alberta is full of smart people and they know that the Trans Mountain can be gamed to reduce the amount of refined gasoline coming down the pipe. This will have price consequences.
- So what we have is a media willing to peddle expert opinions that says that Alberta can't do this, that it's unconstitutional, that they'd lose in court, that it doesn't make good economic sense. Sure. All of that is probably true. However, they forget that there are real consequences to this type of antagonistic gamesmanship, and that ultimately it's the consumers that will pay the price.
- The main issue in this story is that the media is turning this into a BC vs. Alberta scenario where there's a winner and a loser, and that shouldn't be the case. The media needs to stick to the facts on this issue, but it's clear that they'd rather repeat what everyone else has said instead. At the end of the day, we're all Canadians and we should all be working together for the betterment of Canada.
- The government is going to make it harder for refugees to go “asylum shopping” according to Border Security Minister Bill Blair.
- Law professor and refugee lawyer Warda Shazadi Meighen said, “I think that the Liberal government has really taken a sharp turn… Canada was really an outlier in the last five years as a country upholding refugee rights in the face of populism… and this will really chip away at that.”
- As part of the most recent federal budget it includes a provision that makes illegible those who have already made a claim in another country that has an immigration sharing agreement with Canada.
- As of now these countries are the US, UK, Australia, and New Zealand.
- Where did we hear about this?
- The BBC.
- Where was it not? Global, CTV News, and all of CBC except for a 7 minute power panel discussion and an opinion piece against the changing of the provision.
- The article states that, “They would also not be entitled to an oral appeal by an independent tribunal or a court. They would still be subject to a pre-removal risk assessment to determine if they will likely be executed or tortured if they are deported to their home country.”
- The BBC also states something that the government and media here in Canada has not been able to.
- The tweet that Trudeau made a week after Donald Trump became president set an expectation.
- The tweet was: To those fleeing persecution, terror & war, Canadians will welcome you, regardless of your faith. Diversity is our strength #WelcomeToCanada
- The BBC puts it so clear that Canadians ought to wish they had just one media outlet that was willing to say the following: “This perception that Canada will open its arms to all refugees, coupled with increasingly restrictive immigration policies in the US, has led to an influx of claims made at the Canada-US border.”
- The article also went into describing the cities and towns that have been forced to deal with the illegal border crossers.
- It mentions the small towns and even the fact Montreal’s Olympic stadium was at one point converted into temporary housing.
- You’d think that’s all but there was an even more concerning headline in The Washington Post: “In a twist, Canada asks U.S. for help cracking down at its southern border”
- The article says that Canada has asked the Trump administration to amend the Safe Third Country Agreement.
- One proposal suggested by Canadian officials was that an asylum seeker who entered at an unofficial port of entry would be escorted to an official port of entry and then sent back to the United States.
- Other proposals have not been shared with the media.
- As of March 2019 since January 2017, 42,710 people have entered Canada at unofficial ports of entry and have been intercepted by the RCMP.
- All it took was cratering national poll numbers and the hint that in some surveys Trudeau is within the margin of error of the Conservatives in Quebec to change this. Quebec has bore the brunt of this problem and it now makes sense why action is being taken.
- At a time when Trudeau and the media are looking to put the SNC Lavscam in the rear view mirror, one of his biggest scandals of 2017 has come back to bite him.
- Canada's Federal Court has ordered the new lobbying commissioner to investigate whether Trudeau accepting an invitation to the Aga Khan's private island in the Bahamas constituted a conflict of interest, given the Aga Khan Foundation lobbies the government.
- That comes after the Federal Court released a ruling on an application by the advocacy group Democracy Watch that was launched in 2018 and asked the court to order the lobbying commissioner to investigate, which the former watchdog had refused to do.
- Democracy Watch had argued then-lobbying commissioner Karen Shepherd erred in dismissing the matter based on her interpretation that because the Aga Khan was not paid to lobby on behalf of his foundation, his activities and the offer of a private vacation on his island could not be considered lobbying.
- The Federal Court called that ruling “unreasonable” and criticized the interpretation of the law that underscored Shepherd’s decision not to investigate as “a narrow, technical, and targeted analysis that is lacking in transparency, justification, and intelligibility when considered in the context the Commissioner’s duties and functions.”
- The new lobbying commissioner, Nancy Bélanger, is now ordered to re-examine the actions of everyone at the Aga Khan’s foundation, which gets millions in government grants and is registered to lobby multiple government departments.
- Shortly after Shepherd’s decision not to investigate whether lobbying rules were broken, the federal ethics commissioner found that Trudeau violated multiple ethics rules in accepting the private vacation for himself and his family.
- Then-ethics commissioner Mary Dawson in her 2017 report into the controversy wrote that “The [Aga Khan] Foundation was registered to lobby the Office of the Prime Minister at that time. For these reasons, I determined that the vacations accepted by Mr. Trudeau or his family might reasonably be seen to have been given to influence Mr. Trudeau,” then-ethics commissioner Mary Dawson wrote in her 2017 report into the controversy.
- As is usual when Trudeau finds himself in hot water, Trudeau said little on the matter, simply saying “We trust in the processes in place and respect the work that the court and the lobbying commissioner will do,” to reporters when asked about the ruling ordering a new probe.
- So far, Trudeau’s government has faced five ethics investigations in three and a half years, including the Bahamas trip.
- Due to the wonderful Freedom of Information Act, we have also learned that the RCMP was planning and vetting the Prime Minister's getaway with the Aga Khan at least 9 months ahead of time. The new document, in combination with other information published by parliament’s ethics commissioner late in 2017, establishes that the planning for Trudeau’s trip to The Bahamas island owned by the Aga Khan appears to have started earlier than previously thought, a finding which raises, yet again, questions about the judgment of senior political and bureaucratic aides serving the prime minister — aides who, over the months ahead of the trip, never appeared to warn Trudeau of his obligations under the federal Conflict of Interest Act.
- Two of the three top aides advising the prime minister through 2016 when he was planning his trip have since left or are leaving their post because of the Jody Wilson-Raybould/SNC-Lavalin matter: Trudeau’s principal secretary and close friend Gerald Butts resigned earlier this year and the country’s top civil servant, Michael Wernick, announced plans to retire, effective April 19, in the wake of testimony he gave at a House of Commons committee on Wilson-Raybould. Trudeau’s Chief of Staff Katie Telford is the other top aide and she remains on the job.
- Trudeau would later become the first prime minister in history to break a federal law while in office when parliament’s Conflict of Interest and Ethics Commissioner ruled in December, 2017 that, in accepting the gift of a free vacation on a private Bahamas island and free travel in a non-government aircraft, Trudeau violated four provisions of the Conflict of Interest Act.
- Charlie Angus, the NDP's ethics critic had a scathing attack on Trudeau following the news: “I am not surprised that more information is coming forward on Prime Minister Trudeau’s trip to billionaire island. This was the first inkling we had of a leader who would not give a straight answer about clear breaches of his ethical obligations. Many people wrote it off to a lack of experience. We now know it was rooted in a much deeper problem — that Justin Trudeau simply doesn’t believe that the rule of law applies to him.”
- But the fact that it took more than two years — 817 days, in fact — for the new document to be produced also underlines the failure of Canada’s national police force to discharge its responsibilities under another federal law, the Access to Information Act.
- On Jan. 5, 2017, Global News filed nearly identical Access to Information Act requests to the Privy Council Office (PCO), the Department of National Defence (DND) and the RCMP, each one asking for details about the costs and methods used to support the prime minister and his family on The Bahamas trip. The PCO and DND filed complete responses to Global News’ requests in 2017.
- The RCMP, on the other hand, failed to even acknowledge the original request, failed to acknowledge several e-mails about the status of the request, and only acknowledged the requests after telephone calls to its media relations department. Still, the RCMP could only provide a partial release of records 232 days after the original request, another partial release 664 days after the original request, and the final release of records 817 days later on April 2. Federal law requires institutions like the RCMP to respond to requests within 30 days.
- All this information shows that Trudeau and his advisors were blatantly incompetent when it comes to following the law, or that they thought they were above it, and that the RCMP had planned the whole thing almost a year in advance. And at the end of the day what's worse, the organization in charge of enforcing the laws allowing the Prime Minister to skirt around the law, that same organization skirting another law in order to cover up the Prime Minister's ethics law violations, or the Prime Minister and his staff thinking that they could get away with it 5 different times?
- All of this paints the Trudeau government as out of touch and clearly corrupt. In the fall, we'll see if these controversies remain in the news during the election campaign.
Word of the Week
Repudiation - rejection of a proposal or idea
How to Find Us
Episode Title: One and Done
Teaser: Jason Kenney wins a historic majority UCP government in Alberta, and his promise to turn off the taps to BC gains steam. Also, the Trudeau government finally reverses course on refugees while Trudeau is being investigated again over ethics violations.
Recorded Date: April 20, 2019
Release Date: April 21, 2019
Edit Notes: None
Podcast Summary Notes